Sunday, September 24, 2017

The Dead of Antietam: Battery B 4th U. S. Artillery

Battery B 4th U. S. Artillery entered the battle of Antietam, with six Model 1857 Light 12 Pounder Gun-Howitzer smoothbore cannons and 100 cannoneers to man them.   They were engaged east of the D. R. Miller house and later west of the Hagerstown pike south of the D. R. Miller barn supporting John Gibbon's Iron Brigade as they advanced south along the Hagerstown Pike.

                              Engraving from "The Cannoneer"

Before the days fighting was over Battery B would loose 9 men killed in action and another 31 wounded.  The dead included 2 officers and 7 privates.  Three of the dead were regulars with Battery B, the other six were volunteers from Indiana, New York and Wisconsin on detached service with the battery.   This is the story of those brave cannoneers killed in action on September 17, 1862.

Sergeant Joseph Herzog was born in Colmar, France about 1827.  On May 19, 1855, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania he enlisted in Battery B 4th U. S. Artillery for 5 years.  His enlistment papers noted he was a tailor.  He served with the battery in Utah Territory and Nevada where he was wounded in the neck, while mounted as cavalry, in an engagement against Indians in Egan Canyon on August 11, 1860. Herzog would re-enlisted for a second five year term at Camp Floyd, Utah Territory March 19, 1860. At the time of his re-enlistment he was listed as 5 feet 5 1/4 inches tall with blue eyes, and sandy colored hair.  During the thick of the fighting along the Hagerstown Pike Sergeant Herzog was  severely wounded.    According to John Gibbon in "Personal Recollections of the Civil War" Herzog was taken to a field hospital in the rear where he took his own life.

Corporal John Brown was born in Bayern, Germany about 1826.  He was a farmer there before emigrating to the United States.  While in Louisville, Kentucky on March 26, 1858 he enlisted in Battery B for 5 years.  Brown was 5 feet 11 inches tall with hazel eyes, brown hair and a florid complexion.  He served with the battery in Utah Territory and Ruby Valley, Nevada, coming east along with the other regulars in the late summer and early fall of 1861.  Brown would be killed in action on September 17, 1862.

The third regular army soldier killed with Battery B at Antietam was private Henry P. Lyons.  He was born in Galway, Ireland about 1825.  When he enlisted in Detroit, Michigan on January 25, 1858 Lyons was a 23 year old laborer standing 5 feet 8 1/4 inches tall, with grey eyes, brown hair and a light complexion.  Lyons served with the battery in Utah, Ruby Valley, Nevada and Virginia prior to his being killed in action on September 17, 1862.

It is highly likely these three regular army soldiers were buried on the field where they fell after the fighting was over at Antietam.  If they were disinterred in 1866 and moved to Antietam National Cemetery they are among the over 1,800 soldiers interred there known only to God.

Six privates on detached service from volunteer infantry regiments would loose their lives along side the regulars at the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862.  Four of these men were with the Sixth Wisconsin, one with the 19th Indiana and one with the 23rd New York Volunteer Infantry Regiment.

Private John R. Anderson enlisted in Company C, 19th Indiana Volunteer Infantry Regiment in Indianapolis on December 28, 1861.  He was 22 years old.  Anderson was mustered into federal service on January 1, 1862 and detached to Battery B in May 1862,  Anderson was killed in action on September 17 and later buried on the battlefield.  His remains were disinterred from the battlefield and reinterred in Antietam National Cemetery on November 10, 1866 where he now rests in grave #3447 in the Indiana Section.

                                      Private J. R. Anderson

Henry Brown was born in Chemung County, New York about 1841.  On May 6, 1861 he enlisted as a private in Company F, 23rd New York Volunteer Infantry for two years at Elmira.  Brown was 20 years old.  He would be mustered into federal service on May 16, 1861.  Henry Brown was serving on detached service with Battery B when he was killed September 17, 1862.

Twenty year old Sylvester Fort was living in Honey Creek, Sauk County, Wisconsin when he and his 22 year old brother Isaac enlisted in Company A, 6th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry on May 10, 1861.  Isaac and Sylvester, sons of Arthur Fort and his wife Julia were born in Chemung County, New York. On June 7, 1862 he was attached to Battery B.  He was killed in action at Antietam September 17, 1862.  Sylvester's brother Isaac would serve throughout the civil war with the 6th Wisconsin.  He would be mustered out with the regiment on July 14, 1865 and not die until 1923.

Martin McCandra (also spelled McCandron, McCandria, McCandraw) was from Stillwater, Minnesota.   He mustered in to Company B, 6th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry  on June 10, 1861.  He was detached to Battery B June 7, 1862.  He was killed at Antietam September 17, 1862 and buried on the field.  He was removed from the battlefield in 1866 and reinterred in Antietam National Cemetery on November 9, 1866 in grave #3348 in the Wisconsin Section.

                                  Private Martin McCandra

Private Hiram Kell Whitaker was born April 13, 1841 in Indiana, the 7th child of Joseph and Mary Boswell Whitaker.  He was living in Royalton Township, Berrien County, Michigan when he mustered into Company G, 6th Wisconsin Volunteer Infantry on June 11, 1861.  Whitaker was 20 years old.  He was on detached service with Battery B when he was killed in action on September 17, 1862.  Hiram Whitaker had 2 brothers Joseph (1846-1864) and William (1834-1863) who served in the civil war.  Both reportedly died while prisoners of war.   The cenotaph pictured below was erected in Baintertown Cemetery, New Paris, Elkhart County, Indiana in memory of Hiram and his younger brother Joseph.

                                Find A Grave Photo L. Litchfield

Smith Young was a resident of Berrien County, Michigan when he enlisted in Company G, 6th Wisconsin Infantry on June 11, 1861.  He was detached to serve with Battery B on September 12, 1862 and killed in action on September 17.

Henry Brown, Sylvester Fort, Hiram Whitaker and Smith Young were probably all buried on the Antietam battlefield after the fighting ceased.  If they were removed to Antietam National Cemetery in 1866 they are among the unknown.

The battle of Antietam remains the single bloodiest day in all American military history, where in 12 hours of fighting over 23,000 Americans were listed as killed, wounded, captured or missing.  Battery B's casualties on that fateful September day, 155 years ago, rank as the third highest of any regular artillery battery in combat during the war.  May they all rest in peace on hallowed ground.

Information comes from Indiana, New York and Wisconsin Regimental Rosters, U. S. Census Records, U. S. Army Register of Enlistments, "The Utah Expedition", James Stewart, "The Cannoneer", Augustus C. Buell, "Personal Recollections of the Civil War", John Gibbon.

Monday, July 17, 2017

155 Years Later: On Hallowed Ground Honoring the men who Fought Here.

There is no doubt the land along the banks of Antietam Creek in Washington County, Maryland is hallowed ground to the ancestors of the men who wore both the blue and the gray.   More men were casualties here on that fateful day in September 1862 than in any other single day engagement in American military history.  Over 23,110 were listed as killed, wounded, missing or captured after more than 12 hours of fighting.

The battle started at dawn in farmer D. R. Miller's cornfield.

It ended at dark about 3 miles south of there on the hills above the west bank of Antietam Creek near the now famous Burnside Bridge.

This past weekend living historians from North Carolina and elsewhere came to Antietam National Battlefield to honor their ancestors and fellow Americans who fought here.  They conducted infantry, marching, deployment and small arms firing demonstrations representing the 28th, 18th and 11th North Carolina.

                              Marching According to Hardee's Tactics

                                         Firing by Company

               Calvert Arms Fife and Drum Corps joined them to play martial music

The living historians did a great job presenting programs for Antietam's visitors.  They marched to the Bloody Lane to fire a volley and later placed a wreath at Confederate Brigadier General Lawrence O' Bryan Branch's mortuary cannon on Branch Ave.  Calvert Arms Fife and Drum played music in Sharpsburg's town square on Saturday evening.  These programs are a great way to learn from history and also to honor the brave men who fought on these fields originally settled by pacifist German Baptist Brethren farmers.

Tuesday, January 31, 2017

Hasbrouck Davis: Grimes Davis's Partner in Escaping Harpers Ferry, September 14, 1862

Hasbrouck Davis was born in Worcester, Massachusetts, April 23, 1827 the third son of  "Honorable" John Davis, a US Senator and Governor of Massachusetts and Elizabeth Bancroft Davis.  After obtaining a primary education in his hometown schools Davis matriculated to Williams College in 1841. He graduated from Williams in 1845.

After graduation Hasbrouck taught school for a year and then went to Germany to continue his studies in preparation to joining the ministry.  On his return to the United States he because a Minister  of the Unitarian Society in Watertown, Massachusetts about 1849.  In 1850 he would marry Martha W. Stickney whom would bear him 4 children between 1851 and 1859. Davis did not stay with the ministry long, abandoning that profession to study law.  By 1854 he had been admitted to the Bar and opened an office in Boston.  In 1855 Davis made a permanent move to Chicago, Illinois where he renewed the practice of law.

                                          Hasbrouck Davis

According to an excerpt in a book "In Memoriam" published after his death Davis was "tall, over 6 feet, well proportioned, far in complexion with light brown or perhaps auburn hair and blue eyes with a tinge of grey in them - he might be said to possess a more than common share of physical beauty.  Naturally impulsive, he gave his soul to every act; and to this ardent nature he added a persistency of purpose rarely found in unison with it."

When the civil war broke out Hasbrouck Davis turned his law practice over to his partner and helped recruit the 12th Illinois Cavalry.  He was commissioned Lt. Colonel of the 12th November 18, 1861 serving under German born Colonel Arno Voss.

The 12th Illinois Cavalry Regiment was organized at Camp Butler in February 1862.  They would remain there until June 1862 training and guarding Confederate prisoners of war captured at Fort Donelson.  After receiving their mounts on June 25, 1862 the 12th Illinois left Camp Butler for Martinsburg, Virginia.

Lt. Colonel Hasbrouck Davis and the 12th Illinois Cavalry saw action in and around Martinsburg, Bunker Hill, and Darkesville, Virginia in early September 1862.  They were briefly in Williamsport, Maryland on September 11  before returning to Martinsburg.  On the 12th they vacated Martinsburg with Brigadier General Julius White's command and headed southward to Harpers Ferry to join Colonel Dixon Miles Union garrison there.  They were engaged in the defenses of Harpers Ferry on September 13 and 14th, 1862.

By September 13, 1862 the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry was surrounded by Confederate forces under the command of Stonewall Jackson.  Confederate artillery shelled the town on the 14th and things look bleak for the Union forces.  It was inevitable the garrison would have to surrender.

The leaders of the Union Cavalry at Harpers Ferry, predominately Colonel Benjamin Franklin "Grimes" Davis of the 8th New York Cavalry and Lt. Colonel Hasbrouck Davis of the 12th Illinois consulted with Julius White about the possibility of escaping the doomed town.  They went to Colonel Dixon Miles who reluctantly gave his consent for the breakout.  Miles in Special Order #120 put Colonel Arno Voss of the 12th Illinois in overall command of the expedition because he was the ranking officer.

About 8:00 pm on September 14, 1862 about 1500 Union cavalry, led by Grimes and Hasbrouck Davis and a local guide left Harpers Ferry via the pontoon bridge that spanned the Potomac to the base of Maryland Heights in Maryland.  The men would follow the line of the Potomac to near Williamsport, MD., where they would go cross country, finally winding up in Greencastle Pennsylvania along with part of Confederate General James Longstreet's supply train.  The escape ranks as one of the most daring events in civil war history.

Hasbrouck Davis would be promoted Colonel of the 12th Illinois Cavalry on August 11, 1863 and Brevet Brigadier General March 13, 1865.  He would lead the regiment throughout the remainder of the civil war resigning his commission in August 1865. After leaving the army Davis resumed his law practice in Chicago.

                                Find A Grave photo by Merry Hill

On October 19, 1870 Hasbrouck Davis would be lost at sea of the coast of Ireland aboard the steamer Cambria.  His body was never recovered.

Tuesday, January 24, 2017

Benjamin Franklin "Grimes" Davis: Some Family Secrets Revealed

It has been common knowledge for years that renowned 1st US Cavalry Captain and Colonel of the 8th New York Volunteer Cavalry Regiment, Benjamin Franklin "Grimes" Davis, who lost his life to a rebel bullet on June 9, 1863 at Beverly Ford, Virginia was born in Alabama and appointed to West Point from Mississippi.  Little else was known about his youth or his family until recently.  With  modern technology and internet access to historic records at the click of a mouse long lost secrets about Davis's family have come to light.

                               Benjamin Franklin "Grimes" Davis

A review of papers supporting Davis's application to the military academy note he was the grandson of Captain Benjamin W. Holladay and a nephew of Captain John Abbott and William Taylor.  All three men lived in Monroe County, Mississippi in 1850.  William Taylor and John Abbott both wrote letters supporting young Davis's application to West Point.

Holladay, the son of John M. Holladay who died in 1780 or 1781, in South Carolina, was born in Spottsylvania, Virginia April 11, 1777.  He moved to Georgia, Alabama and later Mississippi where he died on October 15, 1850.

Many of Benjamin Holladay and his wife Elizabeth numerous daughters were born in Wilkes County, Georgia before the family moved to Perry County, Alabama where Holladay purchased Public Lands that were opened to entry after the Treaty of Fort Jackson was signed August 9, 1814.  Three of these daughters, Nancy, Agnes Portatier, and Matilda are important to our story.

Agnes, who is often referred to in the census records as Portatier, was born in Georgia about 1806.  She married William Taylor September 18, 1828 in Perry County, Alabama.  By 1850 the family was living in Monroe County, Mississippi where Taylor was a planter.  According to a descendent, Elaine Coffman, he also operated a Stagecoach Inn in the Southern Crossroads Area south of Aberdeen on the Aberdeen-Columbus stage route.

Nancy M. Holladay was born in Georgia about 1808.  She married Wiley Howell, April 3, 1823 in Perry County, Alabama.  By 1850 the Howell family was also living in Monroe County, Mississippi where Wiley was a planter.

Matilda is the most illusive of the Holladay daughter but also the most important.  According to family trees and census records she was born in Georgia sometime before 1813.  On January 1, 1831 Matilda and Benjamin E. Davis were issued a marriage license in Perry County, Alabama. Benjamin E. and Matilda E. Davis would have 6 sons before their untimely death sometime during or after 1840.  Benjamin would purchased 79.81 acres of Public Land as a cash sale on November 14, 1833 according to Government Land Office records.

Benjamin Franklin Davis was born to this union in October 1831.  Next in line was William O. Davis (born about 1833), followed by Thomas J., (born about 1834) Marion (born about 1837) and finally Augustus R. Davis (born about 1840). Records indicate there should be a 6th brother but I have been unable to ascertain his name or birth date.

The 1840 Perry County, Alabama Census records show Benjamin E. Davis as head of household with 3 free white males under 5, 3 free white males age 5-9, 3 free white males age 30-39, 1 free white female age 20-29 and 5 slaves.

 By 1850, according to census records and the letters mentioned above 5 of the 6 boys recorded in the 1840 Perry County, Alabama census were living in Monroe County, Mississippi.

In December 1849 Benjamin was a ward of William Taylor.   He was described as being "about 18 years of age, 5' 9 or 10" high and will weigh about 130 lbs., a fine looking fellow" "of unblemished reputation" and  "of very superior mental endowment". He had served in the 1st Battalion Mississippi Rifle Volunteers commanded by Lt. Colonel James Patton Anderson, at Tampico in the Mexican War and was "one of its best soldiers".

In 1850 William O., Marion and Augustus  were living with Taylor and his wife Portatier, an older sister of Matilda Holladay Davis.  Thomas J. Davis lived with another sister Nancy Holladay and her husband Wiley Howell.  In a letter written by E. Abbott supporting Benjamin's West Point application Abbott notes:  "Mr Davis has lost both his father and mother and has 5 brothers, all fine, strong, well behaved boys".

We know Benjamin Franklin Davis was admitted to West Point and graduated in 1854 ranking 32nd out of 47 cadets.  Upon graduation he was assigned to the 5th US Infantry. He transferred to the 1st US Dragoons March 3, 1855.  Davis spent time in Texas and New Mexico, where he distinguished himself and was wounded fighting Coyotero and Mogollon Apache on the Gila River, June 27, 1857.  By 1858 he was in California  where he would be commissioned a Captain in the 1st US Cavalry and a Lt. Colonel of the 1st California Cavalry Volunteers.  He came east in 1861 to join the Union War  effort.  Davis is best known for advocating and leading a daring escape of Union cavalry from Harpers Ferry on September 14, 1862 in conjunction with  Lt. Colonel Hasbrouck Davis of the 12th Illinois Cavalry.  He would be breveted Major, September 15, 1862 for "Meritorious Service in the Withdrawal of the Cavalry Forces from Harpers Ferry, VA., at the Surrender of the Place", on the recommendation of Major General George B. McClellan.  On November 14, 1862  Brigadier General Alfred Pleasonton recommended John Farnsworth, David Gregg and  Davis for promotion to Brigadier General noting "their judgement, experience and energy fully entitled them to the position of Brigadier General."  This request was not acted upon prior to Davis's untimely death.

As noted in Half Century Record of the Class at West Point 1850-1854, written by Henry L. Abbott, Davis "served in the battles and skirmishes of the Army of the Potomac, after that of South Mountain always with so much credit to himself as to be regarded as having very few equals and no superiors in the cavalry branch of the service".

At least 2 of Benjamin's brothers, Marion and Augustus fought for the Confederacy. Both were with  Company D,  11th Mississippi Infantry Regiment.   Marion would be missing during the Peninsula Campaign and Augustus would be killed  at Weldon Railroad August 18, 1864.